The Subtle Barriers of the Glass Ceiling: Competing Paradigms
The current review begins with an examination of the current state of women in the workforce. Three contrasting levels of analysis in which to approach glass ceiling related issues are presented. Individual level theories place particular emphasis on men and women's stable personality traits in explaining women's occupational status and social inequality. The social structural theories emphasize the environmental and situational determinants of behavior in explaining gender differences. The two particular theories that are discussed include social role theory of sex differences and similarities and status characteristics theory. Finally, a structural level approach to glass ceiling barriers known as the lack of fir model is discussed. This model specifically discusses the production, operation, and implication of gender bias in performance evaluations.