Racial-Ethnic Identity and Academic Achievement Among Low-achieving Minorities
Academic achievement is considered to be at risk among involuntary minorities. Three hypotheses regarding racial identity as a factor that influences academic achievement are explored in this study. The hypotheses are explored by analyzing GPA obtained from eight graders in three different schools along with their response to the open-ended question "what does it mean to you to be a member of your race or ethnic group? You can use examples from your everyday life of things you do that make you feel like a member of this group." The answers to the open ended questions where coded into three racial-identity schemas: dual, ingroup, and aschematic. The first hypothesis explored is that individuals with a dual racial-ethnic identity will have a higher academic achievement than those with ingroup or aschematic frameworks. The second hypothesis is that those who are aschematic will have a lower academic achievement than both ingroup and dual identities. A third hypothesis proposed is that the same trend of results will occur in the four academic core subjects of English, Math, Science, and History, exploring racial-ethnic identity's connection to individual academic areas. The data used were part of a longitudinal study and larger project. Some statistically significant support was found for the first hypothesis, providing support for a difference between dual and aschematic racial identities, but providing no support for a difference between ingroup racial identities and dual racial identities. Significant support was yielded for the second hypothesis, indicating that aschematic individuals have a lower GPA. Some significant support was found for the third hypothesis, in which results yielded significance for a relationship between English, History, and Science GPA and racial-ethnic identity. No significant support was found for Math GPA and racial-ethnic identity.
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