Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Headspace Aldehydes and Ketones in Food Products
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The process of lipid oxidation in a food product gives off secondary compounds, such as aldehydes and ketones, that can be used as a measure of food quality. Previous analysis for these oxidation products has been done using headspace gas chromatography. We have developed a new, selective HPLC method to quantify the aldehydes and ketones present in the headspace of a food product. Headspace gas samples from cereal, potato chips, and baby formula were passed through 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) cartridges. The resulting 2,4-DNPH derivatives of headspace aldehydes and ketones were eluted from the cartridge and analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with spectrophotometric detection at 360 nm. Total run time was 70 minutes to improve peak separations. Calibration was performed in the 50 to 100 ppb range with pure 2,4- DNPH derivatives of three- to ten- carbon aldehydes. Results were compared to GC headspace analysis of the same samples. The new HPLC method could improve selectivity in determining amounts of aldehydes or ketones in a food product.