Modern Geometrical Optics
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Optics is the scientific study of light. There are three different ways to describe light, with each of the descriptions having a separate branch of optics: geometrical, physical, and quantum. In this paper, we will examine the oldest branch of optics, geometrical. This is the study of the propagation of light that can be described with a few simple geometrical relationships, known as the four laws of geometrical optics. Throughout this paper, we will follow, read, and understand the book “Modern Geometrical Optics" by Richard Ditteon. In particular, we will be looking at the properties of good optical materials, derivation of equations for different imaging systems, and simplifications that can be made to complex optical systems by using paraxial optics. Beginners may find useful the series of videos “Geometric optics" provided by Khan Academy that clearly explain the fundamental concepts of geometrical optics.