Eritrea and Oromia : A Comparative Analysis of the Right to Sovereignty
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The Horn of Africa refers to the states of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia, and the region has been embroiled in conflicts for decades. There have been a wide range of issues, including, but not limited to territorial claims, border disputes, and secessionist movements. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 made the region invaluable to western powers; it created a shortcut to India by connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean, allowing maritime trade to be routed through the Red Sea. This had the twofold effect of making trade 1puch easier - the canal cut thousands of miles from the maritime trip - while making the Horn strategically important to control. This research focuses on two states, Ethiopia and Eritrea, from 1869 to the present, and examines the secessionist movement of Oromo nationalists within the state of Ethiopia. This project intended to analyze the denial of Oromo sovereignty against the success that Eritrea ~ finally achieved in 1991. It will begin with the colonial history of Ethiopia, and the ways in which it assisted Italy in colonizing Eritrea. This section will also explore the idea of Ethiopia as a black colonial power. The subsequent section will focus on the world powers which decided Eritrea's post-colonial future, and the ways in which rebel groups won their independence through guerilla warfare. With a general understanding of the three territories, we move to the theory behind statehood and self-determination, and that brings us to Ethiopia's present politics. This final section is a discussion of the institutional power that the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia holds, and outlines the illiberal nature of democracy in the country. This concludes with an argument for restructuring the present government, rather than dividing the country.