Mitochondrial Toxicity from Environmental Contaminants and Nephrotoxic Drugs in NRK-52E cells
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Renal damage has increasingly become the focus of study for many scientists and physicians due to its ability to go undetected until the damage has achieved a significantly negative impact on the kidneys. Some of the main contributors to this phenomena include environmental contaminants and therapeutic agents; Living beings are exposed to environmental contaminants in their everyday and occupational lives, and therapeutic agents are many times focused on alleviating or decreasing the effects of injury in the body. One way to detect renal injury is by following enzymes through renal mitochondrial processes and assessing toxicity effects post exposure to specific environmental contaminants and therapeutic drugs. This study aimed to determine a dependence of cell death based on in vitro incubations of S-(1,2- dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine and mercuric chloride as our environmental contaminants, Tenofovir dispoxyl fumarate, cisplatin, and polymyxin B as our therapeutic drugs, Antimycin A as our positive control, and PBS as our negative control. Incubations were designed to get results from all test agents at one hour, four hours, and twenty four hours, testing each at six different (μM) concentrations. Gamma Glutamyltransferase and Lactate Dehydrogenase release assays on NRK 52-E cells were conducted. Studies previously done support the idea that renal cells will undergo damage when exposed to any of these toxins, however what remains unknown is how to detect these effects early enough for them to be treatable. Insignificant data was collected from both enzyme release assays and inconsistencies to previous work were indicative of experimental error and confounding variables. Future directions to gather data necessary for the understanding of the development of these enzymes as biomarkers, which can thereafter be used to test human proximal tubular cells. The development of preventative measures to protect human renal cells prior to reaching a point of irreversible damage is also possible in tests to come.