Exploring Cognitive Differences in Relational Analogical Processing
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Relational analogical processing is a powerful tool used in the classroom to help students learn. This study focused on the frameworks and cognitive measures used to understand the relational analogical process to learn the differences in cognitive style that may underlie the process. A maximum of 202 participants’ data was collected from different tests that measured different aspects of cognitive ability. The Spontaneous Analogical Transfer task, the Need for Cognition scale, Cognitive Reflection Test, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Algebra Translation Problem, and a Picture Mapping Task were the tasks used in this study. The results revealed the relational composite to have a high correlation with the Picture Mapping Task, Raven’s Progressive Matrices, Algebra Translation Problem, and Cognitive Reflection Test. This concluded that a high working memory capacity and the ability to inhibit unconscious thinking processes are an underlying basis for relational analogical processing. Additionally, the Need for Cognition was the least highly correlated with the relational composite. Overall, the ability to inhibit and control thinking processes and a high working memory capacity showed to be part of the underlying basis for relational analogical processing. Finally, after the review of both the structure-mapping engine and the Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogy model (LISA) the results from the data yielded the LISA model to be the best model to describe an analogical mapping process and further research can improve this process and possibly redefine the process for what we know as general intelligence.