Measuring Brand Loyalty to Grocery Stores in the United States: A Comparison Across Race
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The purpose of this study is to identify relationships between race and grocery store brand loyalty, and to isolate the correlations between different characteristics of grocery stores in the United States and brand loyalty. Although the United States is very diverse and clearly contains more than three racial groups, White, Black, and Hispanic were chosen for the study as they represent the three largest racial groups in the United States in terms of population. Meijer, Costco, and Whole Foods were chosen due to their popularity and diversity in characteristic; Meijer offers an acceptable quality of product at a reasonable price, Costco advertises bulk products at lower prices, and Whole Foods offers a higher quality of product at a higher price. The brand loyalty attributes measured in this study are functional value, price worthiness, emotional value, social value, brand trust, satisfaction, commitment, and repeated purchase behavior. A survey was distributed, and 300 responses were collected. ANOVA with Post Hoc test indicated that Black participants were less sensitive to social value and brand trust to create brand loyalty to Whole Foods than White participants, and they were also less receptive to price worthiness factor and repeated purchase behavior than both White and Hispanic participants. Second, White and Hispanic participants who have grocery shopped at Whole Foods were less satisfied in terms of price worthiness factor than White and Hispanic participants who have grocery shopped at either Meijer or Costco. Third, among Black participants, those who have grocery shopped at Whole Foods appeared to be more satisfied by social value than those who have grocery shopped at Meijer or Costco. These results provide valuable information to marketers, allowing them to reach customers more effectively and better understand cultural differences.