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dc.contributor.advisorKoenig, Sarah
dc.contributor.authorBerger, Hannah
dc.descriptioniii, 54 p.en_US
dc.description.abstractFor the first millennium of Christianity’s existence, women held ordained leadership positions in the Christian Church. While the definition of ordination was changed in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries to exclude women from ordination, the evidence that women had once been ordained as priests, deaconesses, abbesses, presbyters, and holy virgins and widows is irrefutable, despite the contrary narrative that the Vatican promotes. Over the past century, some Catholics have called for a return to women’s ordination. However, the Catholic hierarchy’s response to calls for women’s ordination has ranged from rejecting evidence that women were once ordained to completely banning the discussion of ordaining women in official arenas. The Catholic Church’s conservative views are in sharp contrast to almost every other Christian sect. In the past century, the majority of Protestant Christian sects have ordained women, partially due to the pressure and influence of the second wave feminist movement, but the Catholic Church has not taken the same step. The movements for women’s ordination within the Catholic Church underwent a resurgence during the twentieth century, in conjunction with other secular feminist movements such as Woman Suffrage and the second wave feminist movement. They gained further momentum in the 1960s, when The Second Vatican Council was announced. Vatican II redefined what it meant to be Catholic in the modern world and ushered in many reforms and steps forward for women, especially nuns.en_US
dc.publisherKalamazoo, Mich. : Kalamazoo Collegeen_US
dc.relation.ispartofKalamazoo College Religion Senior Individualized Projects Collection
dc.rightsU.S. copyright laws protect this material. Commercial use or distribution of this material is not permitted without prior written permission of the copyright holder.
dc.titleWomen’s Ordination in the Catholic Churchen_US
KCollege.Access.ContactIf you are not a current Kalamazoo College student, faculty, or staff member, email to request access to this thesis.

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  • Religion Senior Individualized Projects [168]
    This collection includes Senior Individualized Projects (SIP's) completed in the Religion Department. Abstracts are generally available to the public, but PDF files are available only to current Kalamazoo College students, faculty, and staff.

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