The Association Between Psychosocial Difficulties and Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction Among Children in a Pediatric Urology Sample
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The rate of comorbid psychological disorders has been found to be greater with children of all types of incontinence who seek out attention from a pediatric urology clinic compared to children who have no urinary and bowel difficulties (Gontard, 2011). These psychological disorders range from visible behavioral symptoms which include conduct disorders and ADHD, to internalizing disorders that cause emotional suffering such as anxiety and depressive disorders. Although previous studies have been done to determine the coexistence of both psychosocial difficulties and urinary and bowel dysfunction within children, no research has been done to determine which came first: the psychosocial disorder of the urinary difficulty. The purpose of the current study was to determine which disorder was present first along with continuing to investigate the prevalence of both urinary and bowel dysfunction and psychosocial disorders. Conducted at the Children’s Hospital of Michigan in Detroit, data was collected over a 10-year period examining the changes in child’s PSC and DVSS scores in a pediatric urology sample.