The Effects Of AuNPs And IONPs Functionalized To Amoxicillin Against S. aureus And E. coli
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Multidrug resistant bacteria have slowed down the process of novel antibiotic discovery and development. Conventional antibiotics such as beta-lactams, are losing their effectiveness against a variety of infections. In this regard, this research examines the functionalization of a widely used beta-lactam antibiotic on two different nanosystems and then being evaluated by pathogenic bacterial strains for potential therapeutic usages. The common beta-lactam chosen for this study was amoxicillin. Amoxicillin loses its ability to successfully kill bacteria as they produce betalactamases, which hinder their core beta-lactam ring useless. With this knowledge, the use of nanotechnology can be promising. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as well as iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) were chosen as models and then synthesized using a citrate synthesis and co-precipitation, respectively. These nanoparticles were successfully able to be functionalized to amoxicillin and their antibacterial properties were examined on multidrug resistant bacteria, E. coli and S. aureus. From the results, the AuNP-Amox nanosystem showed that it was statistically significant against both types of bacteria when compared to a control, AuNPs, and standard amoxicillin. The IONPAmox nanosystem showed that it was no better than standard amoxicillin when exposed to both bacteria. This phenomenon is explained by the Hard Soft Acid Base (HSAB) theory which states that chemical species can be assessed by their respective polarizability where they are categorized into either hard or soft acids or bases. The interaction of Au (soft acid) to the sulfur (soft base) on amoxicillin and IO (hard acid) to the carboxylic acid (hard base) on amoxicillin is examined and thus leads to their antibacterial properties. Future studies would be examining other types of nanoparticles such as Palladium and Cadmium, functionalized to amoxicillin. Another study would be to investigate how to impair the functions of proteins that resist external stimuli, which are found within their cell walls.