Raman Spectroscopy: Identifying Peaks Associated with Breast Cancer Pathophysiology to Diagnose Cancerous Tissue
Werner, Cameron W.
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Worldwide rates of female breast cancer have increased dramatically in recent decades. Current breast cancer detection techniques, which include mammography and clinical assessments, have high false-positive rates that add a psychological and monetary burden on patients. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy is a technique that detects the inelastic scattering of light, and recent studies have determined a limited number of peaks that are able to distinguish breast cancer tissue from healthy breast tissue. We report the use of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy as a tool that successfully differentiates breast cancer tissue from healthy tissue. Sixty samples, comprised of thirty breast cancer and thirty healthy tissue samples, were imaged using a Renishaw InVia Raman microscope. Spectral data was normalized and analyzed by discriminant function analysis, a proprietary separation function, and ROC curve analysis to identify significant differences in spectral data between breast cancer tissue and healthy tissue. Raman peaks corresponding to cellular proteins at 1158 cm-1, nucleic acids at 1243 cm-1, and phospholipids at 1750 cm-1 showed a significant difference between healthy and breast cancer tissues. Spectral data was also mapped to give a visual representation of differences in Raman peak intensities between breast cancer tissue and healthy tissue. We successfully identified multiple novel Raman peaks that could be used to detect breast cancer through statistical analysis and visual representation. Moving forward, an integration and analysis of all identified Raman peaks associated with breast cancer would improve Raman spectroscopy’s diagnostic ability. Furthermore, clinical application of an in vivo Raman spectroscopy probe displays the future gold standard of breast cancer diagnostics.
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