DC-SIGN Carbohydrate Recognition Domain (CRD) Determinants Responsible for HIV-1 Binding
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HIV belongs to genus Lentivirus. HIV spread through sexual contact, blood, and mother to child. Virus interior is composed of two single-stranded RNA. Reverse transcriptase is key enzyme used to incorporate virus into DNA. CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic strains. Results in death of CD4+ T cells (Helper T cells) through Direct Killing, Increased Apoptosis and Indirect killing of CD8 T lymphocytes (Cytotoxic T cells). Leads to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections (e.g. Tuberculosis). Upon viral entry, DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells In vivo has been implicated as a receptor facilitating efficient trans HIV-1 virus transmission to CD4+ T cells. However, It has been observed that another member of the C-type lectin family, L-SIGN, inefficiently binds and transmits virus.