A Sillouette of Vietnamese Shadow Education: Credential Culture,Historical Legacies, and National Examinations
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This paper analyzes the extent to which socio-historical processes of Vietnamese education have influenced contemporary structures of education in Vietnam. Such as the development of private supplementary tutoring, also known as shadow education. Through research literature and an internship practicum experience, this paper illustrates the Olympia School’s Enrichment program, as a format of shadow education.