Demographic Predictors and Child Health Outcomes of Unplanned Pregnancy in a Mid-Michigan Cohort
Hayward, Alexandra M.
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Unplanned pregnancies account for approximately 49% of all pregnancies in the United States and this number has been stagnant for decades. To better understand the predictors of unplanned pregnancy, we examined whether various sociodemographic factors (race, age, education, marital status, income, car, and home ownership) in a Mid-Michigan cohort increased odds of a woman reporting an unplanned pregnancy. An additional objective was to determine if associations existed between maternal behavioral factors (depression, smoking, breast-feeding), child health outcomes (low birth weight and pre-term birth), and unplanned pregnancies. Data used in this study were from an ongoing data collection project entitled the Archive for Research and Child Health (ARCH). Associations were assessed with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with univariate and multivariate models. Unplanned pregnancies accounted for 62.9% of all pregnancies. Women who were non-white, younger, less educated, unmarried, low income, and who did not own a car or a home had increased odds of reporting an unplanned pregnancy. When sociodemographic factors were put into a multivariate model with pregnancy planning status, being unmarried was shown to be the strongest factor increasing the odds of a woman reporting an unplanned pregnancy. The maternal behavior of breastfeeding was significantly related to unplanned pregnancies. After sociodemographic factors were added into a model, the relationship between planning status and breastfeeding became insignificant while education became the most influential factor in increasing the odds of a woman breastfeeding. Results from this study can be used to guide targeting of pregnancy education and planning services in the future to reduce the rate of unplanned pregnancy in the United States.