The Relationship between Perceived Coaching Behaviors and Developmental Benefits of High School Sports Participation
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The present study aimed to establish the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors and the positive and negative developmental benefits of high school sports participation. Specifically, 297 high school athletes were administered Hanson and Larson's (2005) Youth Experiences Survey-2, an instrument that assesses high school aged students' positive (e.g., identity exploration, initiative, teamwork and social skills, positive relationships, adult networks and social capital) and negative (e.g., stress, inappropriate adult behavior, social exclusion) developmental experiences in organized youth activities. The students also rated the behaviors of their coaches using an athlete report version of Cote's ( 1999) Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport that assesses such behaviors as encouragement, mistake-contingent technical instruction, and punitive technical instruction. Last, the athletes completed the HOPE scale (Gould & Martens, 1979), which includes questions that allow the athletes to relate how their sport experiences help them face problems· they are currently experiencing and help them learn to set and achieve goals. Canonical correlation analyses were used to examine the magnitude of the various relationships between perceived coaching behaviors and the positive and negative youth development outcomes. Results indicated that athletes who reported experiencing certain positive coaching behaviors (e.g., emphasis on mental preparation and goal setting) were also more likely to report experiencing positive sport experiences (e.g., identity reflection) and less likely to report negative sport experiences (e.g., social exclusion). Therefore, results from the study indicate that coaching behaviors can be used to predict certain developmental experiences in sport.