The Pyramidal Model of Associations: Implicit versus Explicit Consistency within Multiplicative Relationships
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This study examined the implicit and explicit associations that are made between various social groups, attributes, and roles and behaviors. In particular, three influences shaped the four individual patterns of associations that created the pyramidal model developed in the present research: (a) the principles of social psychology's three central consistency theories of the 1950s, (b) the integration of the unified theory (Greenwald et al., 2002) and gender role theory (Eagly, 1987), and (c) the increasing prominence of implicit measures in social cognition research. The primary theoretical prediction from this pyramidal model is that each association is interrelated. In this two-part study, 83 female and 84 male University of Michigan students, ranging in age from 16-23 years completed questionnaires and a series of Implicit Associati.on Tests (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwarz, 1998). The resulting data revealed· support for the model and predicted consistency patterns in all patterns of associations for implicit (lA T) measures and only 2 of the 4 triangular patterns in comparable explicit (questionnaire) measures. Implicit and explicit measures are particularly discussed and examined. These results imply that stereotypical associations are not isolated associations, but rather are part of a consistent pattern of associations.