Environmental Economics : Water Quality in Africa
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The advantages and disadvantages of different pollution control measures were analyzed in this paper. Specific focus was placed on output taxes, subsidies, transferable pollution permits, and command-and-control policies. The most economically efficient and environmentally feasible policy is transferable pollution permits. These allow firms to trade their pollution quota depending on their pollution technology. There is incentive to improve technology for the future, as well as reduce overall pollution. Water pollution is one area where pollution control measures can be used so that people's health and well-being are not compromised. It is important for citizens to have clean drinking water and for pollution in water sources to be reduced to a minimum. The long-term costs of health problems due to water pollution are not known, however the maladies that result from unclean drinking water, include typhoid, malaria, and diarrhea. Data analysis was conducted on twenty-two African countries with regards to gross domestic product, gross national income, emissions of organic pollutants, health expenditures, and access to an improved water source. There was a strong positive correlation between gross national income (GNI), gross domestic product (GDP) and emission of organic pollutants. There was a positive correlation between emissions of organic water pollutants and freshwater withdrawals, freshwater withdrawals and GNI, population and emissions of organic water pollutants, and improved water source, GNI, and GDP. The results from the regressions found that emissions of organic water pollutants are related to health expenditures, GDP, and GNI. It was also found that access to an improved water source is related to population and health expenditures are related to emissions of organic water pollutants.