The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Diabetes Mellitus
Garrison, Jacqueline L.
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Periodontal disease is a common infection that is characterized by gums pulling away from the teeth and forming pockets due to bacteria making its way inside the gums. This leads to alveolar bone and periodontal tissue loss. High blood glucose levels that result in the body's ability to produce and/or use insulin describes the group of diseases called diabetes mellitus. The relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus is well documented. The most studied association is how diabetes affects periodontitis, but recent evidence suggests that the relationship is bi-directional. Inflammatory events induced by periodontitis may play an important role in diabetes advancement, and insulin resistance most likely facilitates the progression of periodontal disease. Precise mechanisms of action are not completely understood, but it is known that poor metabolic control and duration of the hyperglycemic state are risk factors for · periodontal disease and altered host function. Treating periodontal disease leads to an enhancement in the general health of persons with diabetes mellitus. Conversely, properly controlled glycemic levels can prevent the advancement or development of periodontal disease. As of now, proper oral care is the best treatment for periodontal disease. Continual maintenance, check ups, and treating the microbiota will have positive effects on both periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus maintenance.