In Vitro Chemical Carcinogenesis: Cell Transformation with Glutamic Acid Pyrolysate
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The list of human carcinogens is ever increasing, and it is necessary to identify and remove potential carcinogens efficiently. Screening tests have been developed for weak carcinogens in order to lessen the laborious animal testing. Screening tests were carried out on the smoke condensate and charred surfaces of fish and meat where strong mutagenic activity was discovered using cultures of Salmonella typhymurium. Subsequently, this strong mutagenic activity was found to be due to the existence of some protein pyrolysis products. Mo're precisely, the mutagenic principles were isolated from the pyrolysis products of glutamic acid and other amino acid such as tryptophan. By Salmonella typhymuriurn test, it was suggested that 2-amino-6-methyl-d~pyrido[1,2-a:3;2'-dlimidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-amino-dipyrido[1,2-a:3;2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2) should have the strong mutagenic activity compared to other isolated principles of glutamic acid pyrolysate. One of the above products derived from glutamic acid pyrolysi~Glu-P-1, was used in these investigations to elucidate a mechanism of mutation. Syrian golden hamster embryo cells were employed to observe the transformation activity of Glu-P-1. As a result, morphologically transformaed cells were obtained by treatment with Glu-P-l. The survival rate of cells and cell transformation rate were calculated. Cytotoxicity of Glu-P-1 was evaluated and compared with other pyrolysates, Glu-P-2, Trp-P-1 and Trp-P-2 from tryptophan pyrolysate, which were previously tested.