Liquid Tissue Mechanics as a Factor in Morphogenetic Tissue Movements in the Chick Embryo
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Recent evidence suggests that developing tissues in the chick embryo resemble multicellular liquids. It has been suggested that surface tensions in the tissues direct tissue position and growth in the embryo. Developing heart, liver and limb bud may act as more cohesive elasticoviscous liquid droplets in less cohesive mesodermal tissue layers. Direct evidence for this hypothesis is found in a specific hierarchy for the differential adhesion of unlike tissues in in vitro culture. The elasticoviscous liquid nature is proved through electron and light micrographs of aggregates compressed under centrifugation. Direct quantitive values for the intercellular forces have been impossible to calculate,until now. Using methods developed in the last several years, this study was an attempt to measure these quantitative values using parallel plate compression of multicellular aggregates in a miniature vise. The significance of this research is primarily in .the area of morphogenetic movements in.the developing embryo, primarily chick limb bud formation, although possible significance in the mechanism of metastasizing tumors is indicated.
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