Cytotoxicity of Nicotine, Ethanol, LPS, and Chlorhexidine, in Combination with Dycal®, in Human Dermal Fibroblasts
Ruiz, Fernando D.
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Dycal® is a calcium hydroxide composite dental material used in important endodontic clinical procedures for pulp capping and as a dental liner. It comes in direct contact with pulp tissue as well as periapical oral tissue. The main objective for the use of Dycal® is to promote healing and function of the tooth; it must stimulate repair or be neutral. To avoid dental materials which could be potentially toxic to these sensitive tissues, cytotoxicity assays were done to determine how these materials affect gingival cells in the mouth. Dycal® has been known to show cytotoxic properties. This research was done to determine how commonly encountered factors such as nicotine, ethanol, chlorhexidine, and lipopolysaccharide, affect the cytotoxicity of gingival cells already treated with Dycal®. Cytotoxicity values for Dycal® alone, individual agents and agents in combination with Dycal® were measured using four different assays: methylthiazol tetrazolium assay (MTT), water soluble tetrazolium (WST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and mitotic index. Absorbance values were read using a microtiter plate reader at appropriate wavelengths. No significant increase in cytotoxicity was observed in fibroblasts treated with Dycal® alone or in combination with any of the factors. Overall, all factors, including Dycal®, showed similar levels of cytotoxicity.