Evaluation of Pesticide-Treated, Biodegradable Spheres and Potential Baits for the Control of Rhagoletis Species
Stelinski, Lukasz Lech
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Although several researchers (Prokopy and Coli 1978, Prokopy and Hauschild 1979, Johnson 1983, Neilson et al. 1984) have reported on the use of sticky traps for the management of Rhagoletis species, only a few investigations have explored the potential of using combinations of traps, lures, and an insecticide (Duan and Prokopy 1995a, Duan and Prokopy 1995b, Hu et al. 1997). Baited, pesticide-treated biodegradable spheres were evaluated for efficacy in controlling apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and blueberry maggot flies, R. mend ax (Curran). Additional experiments were conducted to examine the attractiveness of different types of baits to other Rhagoletis species including R. pomonella and the cherry fruit fly, R. cingulata (Loew). Significantly more flies were captured using baited, biodegradable spheres treated with a pesticide (imidacloprid) compared with baited, biodegradable, non pesticide-treated spheres. The mean feeding time on pesticide-treated spheres was also significantly higher than non pesticide-treated spheres. Monitoring traps (consisting of unbaited, 9-cm diameter, red sticky spheres) placed within a 2 m radius of pesticide-treated spheres captured significantly fewer flies compared with traps placed at the same distance from non pesticide-treated spheres. A mix blend of apple volatile captured significantly more flies than other volatiles evaluated. Pherocon AM traps baited with an aqueous ammonium solution (1.0 g of ammonium acetate in 5 ml of water) captured significantly more R. cingulata flies than conventional traps. The results indicate that pesticide-treated spheres baited with a mix blend of apple volatile can reduce the impact of R. pomonella flies on fruit production. Other Rhagoletis species including R. mendax and R. cingulata can also be effectively suppressed using pesticide-treated spheres baited with an aqueous form of ammonia.