Protective Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract IH636 against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in HL-I Cardiomyocytes
Engers, Drew W.
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Given the current prevalence of cardiovascular disease, seeking forms of protection against myocardial injury is of significant importance. Grape seed extract poses a potential solution to this dilemma since it is a potent antioxidant which could combat the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and electrophiles in cardiomyocytes. However, other than its capacity to act as a free radical scavenger, the mechanistic function and effects of grape seed in cardiomyocytes to promote an antioxidant response are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro cardiac myocytes subjected to the intense oxidative stress of ischemia/reperfusion in order to delve into the possibility of differing mechanisms of benefit conferred by variations in treatment time and dose. Thus, HL-l cardiomyocytes were either acutely (30 min) or chronically (24 hr) treated with IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in a dosage range of25-100 J.lg/ml prior to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). The levels of necrosis and apoptosis were measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and DNA fragmentation assays with ELISA, respectively, giving insight into protection against certain cell death pathways. Supplementation with 100 J.lg/ml of GSPE produced marginally significant reductions in necrosis levels of both acutely and chronically treated cells and in the apoptosis levels of chronically treated cells. This study suggests that a 100 µg/ml GSPE dose may be a physiological significant treatment concentration for in vitro cardioprotection of HL-l cells. More replicates of this research are necessary to determine the true statistical significance of this treatment concentration as a protective measure against necrotic and apoptotic cell death for cardiomyocytes. subj ected to IIR.