The Success and Mechanisms of Mating Disruption for Two Tortricid Moth Species, Grapholita Molesta and Cydia Pomonella, in Pheromone-Treated Orchards and in a Sustained Flight Wind Tunnel
Mallinger, Rachel E.
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Success of mating disruption programs for two species of tortricid moths, Cydia pomonella, coddling moth (CM), and Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth (OFM), was evaluated in pheromone-treated fields and in a sustained flight wind tunnel. Numerous pheromone blends applied in a variety of densities were tested for their ability to shut down male moth captures in lure baited traps that represented a calling female, as well as for their ability to prevent mating of tethered virgin females. Experiments testing the attraction of pheromone blends and pheromone drop sizes to both moth species were conducted using pheromone-baited traps. Mating disruption was found to be successful for OFM, especially at high pheromone point source densities, indicating that false-plume following is a mechanism of mating disruption for this species. With CM, success of mating disruption was more dependent on pheromone blend and dispenser type, as opposed to pheromone point source density. Also for CM, the addition of a pyrethroid pesticide to the pheromone blend was an attractive combination to the male moth and . may be used in "attract and kill" methods. In the wind tunnel experiments, male OFM showed an increase in subsequent responses to pheromone point sources 15 min and 24 h after a brief pre-exposure to a lure. However, duration of flight to a pheromone point source decreased following pre-exposure to a rope and a lure. These results indicate that adaptation/habituation may be an important mechanism of mating disruption for the OFM and restrict the male to close-range searching for a female partner. The findings of this study will be used to develop more effective mating disruption programs for these two moth species as an alternative to conventional pesticides.