The Image of the Jew as Depicted in "Soll Und Haben" by Gustav Freytag and in "Der Hungerpastor" by Wilhelm Raabe
Keel, William Donald
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The twentieth century has had the misfortune to be the witness of one of the cruelest acts which man has committed against himself. The systematic extermination of the Jewish population of Europe, which fortunately did not achieve final success, is even as a mere idea too horrible to be imagined by human beings. Yet before the eyes of mankind National-Socialist Germany planned and executed this project during the latter stages of the Second World War. However, the extermination of the Jews was not an event in itself, but the culmination of years of anti-Semitic propaganda and persecution of the Jewish population in Germany. The German populace had been conditioned, had been educated to accept this final solution to the "Jewish problem" through the continued efforts of the National-Socialist Government and Propaganda Ministry to demonstrate to the public the evil, the sickness that the Jew represented in the German nation. For the National-Socialists to have been successful, they had to appeal to underlying anti-Semitic tendencies in the German people. The immediate sources of these tendencies are found in the traditional anti-Jewish attitudes of the Christian Church and in the programmatic anti-Semitic campaigns which began in the 1870's and 1880's in Austria and Germany and continued until the rise of Adolf Hitler. Another, perhaps subtler, aspect of this problem was the development in the national mind of a stereotype of the typical Jew. It was the development of a conditioned negative response on the part of the average German burgher to the word Jude. From this standpoint, I wish to examine the role of the German novel of the nineteenth century in the development of the stereotyped Jew.