Gender and Citizenship: A Feminist Theory of Women's Agency and Democracy in Brazil
Kelley, Marc Richard
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In the first section of this essay I evaluate the canon of liberal citizenship theory with special attention to the social liberal citizenship of T. H. Marshall and John Rawls and the liberal communitarian citizenship of Will Kymlicka. I also review some important critiques of these liberal models of citizenship by civic republicans and feminist theorists. Through an analysis of these theories and the critiques they have provoked I hope to establish a preliminary understanding of the necessary components of a feminist model of citizenship. I conclude that while the emphasis Marshall, Rawls, and Kymlicka place on rights is an important part of citizenship, rights are a necessary but insufficient component of an inclusive theory of citizenship. I also briefly review the positive aspects of some more participatory models. I begin with a preliminary description of the theoretical base from which more socially-minded theorists have moved beyond in their models of citizenship: classical liberalism.