Physical Education Senior Individualized Projects

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This collection includes Senior Individualized Projects (SIP's) completed in the Physical Education Department. Abstracts are generally available to the public, but PDF files are available only to current Kalamazoo College students, faculty, and staff. If you are not a current K College student, faculty, or staff member, email us at to request access to this material.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 220
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    Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury in High School and Collegiate Female Athletes
    (Kalamazoo, Mich. : Kalamazoo College., 2019-11-01) Leclerc, Stefan; Wilson, Nicholas
    Sports integrate beauty, grace, grit, skill, competition, passion, camaraderie, and more intricate characteristics into simple games. Within their simplicities exists the chance to blur the mind of all outside distractions and the opportunity to rely solely on the intuitive nature of our evolution as human beings. Sports can represent brotherhood, family or legacy, they can provide a source of enjoyment and love which may not be possible otherwise. Unfortunately, the physical nature of sport can act as a humbler amongst all of these positives. One of the most common injuries in the world of sports involves a ligament within the knee named the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (Gans, Retzky, Jones, & Tanaka, 2018). The role of the ACL is to stabilize the knee joint (McDaniel, Rasche, Gaudet, & Jackson, 2010). ACL injuries can have major impacts on the career of an athlete, often times this injury can end seasons (Wiggins et al., 2016). An ACL injury requires extensive rehabilitation just to return to normal daily functions, with rehabilitation being prolonged for athletes to allow for return to practices and competitions (Laskowski, 2014). ACL injuries are two to four times more likely to occur in young female athletes when compared to male athletes (Sugimoto, Myer, Barber Foss, & Hewett, 2014). This literature review seeks to bring to light the epidemiology of this injury to high school and collegiate female athletes, the risk factors associated with female athletes, and what is being done to prevent the occurrence of this injury.
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    The Viability of Online Personal Training : Business Plan
    (Kalamazoo, Mich. : Kalamazoo College., 2019-11-01) Marshall, James B.; Hess, Jeanne L., 1958-
    In 2018, the personal training industry was worth $9 billion dollars having grown 1% between 2014 - 2018. There are roughly 600,000 personal trainers who work at commercial gyms (Industry Market Research, Reports, and Statistics). Recently, gyms and in-person trainers have found it difficult to compete with modern technology, constituting virtual training options. Inflexibility, cost, and inconsistent delivery have made personal trainers a difficult sell to many consumers seeking fitness programs (Rucker). It is my intention to launch an online personal training business to help address the barriers that in-person personal training experiences. In-person personal training is a luxury to most. By creating an online personal training business, we are able to reduce the challenges by offering a more flexible, lower cost product to access the service. Evidence suggests that online training and coaching is an emerging sector and a viable option in the marketplace (Rucker). I have developed a strong marketing plan to support the launch and advancement of this business. My intention is to pursue online personal training and secure 20-30 clients to achieve $10,000 a month in gross sales or $120,000 my first year. The marketing plan is a carefully developed combination of digital tools and tactics that will work in harmony to both promote and drive my services to the right target market. Based on two research studies, qualitative and quantitative conducted to 15 participants and 60 participants, respectively, I have identified my audience as 22-40 year old female and male consumers. My research has demonstrated that active females should be part of the puzzle, even though I want to specialize in male training. I hypothesize that by embracing female consumers, I will attract their partners, including male partners. My research has indicated that females hold 57% of all memberships at fitness facilities and it is anticipated that this statistic will continue to grow exponentially, which is in line with my quantitative analysis results (Mullen & Whaley, 2010). I believe that my drive, skills, and experiences, in collaboration with my passion for strength training, are winning combinations to launch this business model. While I still have some work to do, I plan to launch my online platform by or before January 1, 2020.
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    ACL Prevention Program
    (Kalamazoo, Mich. : Kalamazoo College., 2020-04-01) Sanchez, Juninho
    The introduction of Title XI in 1972 saw women's participation in extracurricular activities and high-level sports exponentially increased. This increase in participation also meant an increase in women sustaining injuries. Sports injuries such as; ankle sprain, plantar fasciitis, shin splints, patellofemoral pain syndrome, and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and ruptures became common among female athletes. Among these injuries, ACL ruptures and tears account most significant differences when comparing injury risk between men and women. Studies have shown that women are at a two to eight time’s greater risk of tearing or rupturing their ACL when compared to their male counterparts. These differences stem from a number of factors that are seen as hormonal, anatomical, neuromuscular and biomechanical differences. Additionally, the goal of this literature review will be to address why females are more susceptible to ACL injuries and to provide information on the mechanism of injury, methods of reconstruction, statistics, and provide a prevention plan that can be utilized before a competitive event or integrated into a gym routine.
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    Leadership In Athletics: What Defines the Ideal Leader?
    (2020-04-01) Reiter, Benjamin N.; Erdi, Peter
    Leadership is an important aspect of life that is not confined to any particular age group, gender, ethnicity, or social group. It is especially prominent within the world of athletics and plays a vital role in the development of young adults. Members of a sports team are constantly looking to their peers or the coach for a sense of purpose and direction. Therefore, it is helpful to understand what separates a good leader from a poor leader for those participating in high school athletics. In this study, the leadership style of the captains of three high school athletic programs was examined using surveys that contained a ranking questionnaire and a written response questionnaire. The goal of the study is to measure the motivation of the followers (non-captains) to the captains to understand what traits are most envied in a captain. The use of a “dominance” and “prestige” perspective will help us understand what makes someone the ideal leader for a high school athletic program. The data obtained from the ranking questionnaire was analyzed using a Kruskal Wallis test to test for a difference in the responses of the captains and non-captains to the same set of questions. A statistically significant difference in responses indicates that the captains and non-captains do not agree on the question asked. This study found a statistically significant difference in a question centered around consideration of suggestions by the non-captains to the captains for one of the teams that participated.
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    Food as Medicine: Nutritional Psychiatry and Implementation of Nutrition Education into the Kalamazoo College Curriculum
    (Kalamazoo, Mich. : Kalamazoo College., 2019) Bonvicini, Maria; Hess, Jeanne L., 1958-
    Open to the public at the request of the author 7/8/19.
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